Magic is real, and it all comes from the **Fourier Integral**. But one doesn’t become a wizard without a little reading first – so, the purpose of this article is to explain the Fourier Integral theoretically and mathematically.

Before reading any further, it is important to first understand this:* in mathematics, there is a rule that states that any periodic function of time may be “reconstructed” exactly from the summation of an infinite series of harmonic sine-waves*. The generalized theory itself is referred to as a “**Fourier Series**.” For use with arbitrary electronic time-domain signals of period , it may be expressed as:

over the range:

where:

is the magnitude of the 0th harmonic

represents the magnitude of the nth harmonic of cosine wave components

represents the magnitude of the nth harmonic of sine wave components

is the **fundamental frequency**

is the variable that represents instances in time

is the variable that represents the specific harmonic, and is always an integer

This monumental discovery was first announced on December 21, 1807 by historic gentleman Baron Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier.

In order to go from the Fourier Integral to the Fourier Transform, it is necessary to express the previous Fourier Series as a series of ever-lasting exponential functions. Using an orthogonal basis set of signals described by of magnitude , we now write the Fourier Series as:

where is .

### What is the Fourier Integral?

The Fourier Integral, also referred to as Fourier Transform for electronic signals, is a mathematical method of turning any arbitrary function of time into a corresponding *function of frequency*. A signal, when transformed into a “function of frequency”, essentially becomes a function that expresses the *relative magnitudes of each harmonic** of a Fourier Series that would be summed to recreate the original time-domain signal. *To see this, observe the following figures:

In order to rebuild a square wave with sines and cosines only, it is necessary to determine the magnitudes of each harmonic used in the Fourier Series, or rather, the Fourier Integral (for **continuous **time-domain signals). The relative magnitudes of these needed harmonics can be displayed graphically as a function of frequency (widely known as a signal’s **frequency spectrum**):

Though the recreation of a signal using an infinite series of sines and cosines is impossible to achieve in the lab, one may get very close. Close enough that the most advanced lab equipment wouldn’t be able to calculate the error due to tolerance specifications. This allows engineers to use Fourier Analysis to work with time-domain signals, such as radio signals, television signals, satellite signals and just about any signal you can think of. By viewing a signal according to what frequency components are contained within it, electrical engineers may concern themselves with magnitude changes in frequency only, and may no longer worry about the signal’s magnitude-changes through time. Not only is this a very practical concept when working in the lab, it also greatly simplifies the mathematics behind signal conditioning in general. In fact, the entirety of the Communications industry owes its success to the Fourier Transform for not only antenna design, but a plethora of other applications.

### The math behind the Fourier Transform

The derivations that follow have been summarized from Chapter 4 of the textbook “Signal Processing and Linear Systems” by B.P. Lathi, a fine book for students of Communication Systems.

We begin by considering some arbitrary, aperiodic time-domain signal. An example of this kind of wave would be the output of a microphone after a man speaks a few words into it. For the actual signal generated by the changes in voltage as the man spoke, we can use Fourier Analysis to describe it as a summation of exponential functions *if *we instead desire to reconstruct a *periodic *signal composed of the same voice signal *repeating *every seconds. For an accurate description, it is important that is long enough such that the repeating arbitrary signals do not overlap. However, if we let approach , then this “periodic” signal is simply just the voice signal (or, any general arbitrary function) in time we wanted to describe initially. Mathematically, we express:

where is the time-domain function we wish to apply the Fourier Transform on (here, the arbitrary “voice” signal). For the above equation to be true, is equal to:

**where:**

It is important to note here that in practice, the *shape *(aka “envelope”) of a signal’s frequency spectrum is what is of main interest, and the magnitude of the components within the spectrum comes secondary. This is because amplifiers and other signal-conditioning circuits may be built to alter the magnitude in any way one wishes, and will not affect signal frequencies (so long as the circuits are LTI systems). Analyzing the envelope of a signal’s Fourier Transform allows one to use intuitive and mathematically-simplified approaches to signal-processing in general, which we shall see later. For this reason (and also as approaches ) let:

Notice that is simply without the constant multiplier , such that:

which implies that may be written:

Observation of this fact reveals insight: The shorter the period, , the larger the magnitude of the coefficients. But, on the other hand, as , the magnitudes of every frequency component approaches – which is why engineers choose to analyze spectrum envelopes. So, instead of visualizing absolute frequency magnitudes, instead consider that the frequency spectrum simply expresses the *magnitude-density per unit of bandwidth, aka Hz. *And since:

then:

and:

so:

In the limit as we see:

which is referred to as the **Fourier Integral**. is referred to as the **Fourier Transform** of the original aperiodic function , and we express this concept as:

### A fourier transform example

This example is from the same textbook as the previous derivation, and can be found on page 239.

Find the Fourier Transform of: where is an arbitrary constant.

To do this, we apply the Fourier Integral to the function as follows:

Because of the factor, we only integrate from . We simplify for:

Also, we know that . So, for , as :

So:

for:

### Useful Fourier Transform Properties

The relationship between and exhibit beautiful symmetry that help one to develop an intuitive approach to signal analysis. Among all the concepts within electrical engineering, the properties between a time-domain function and its Fourier transform are among the most important to understand. Observe these following properties **that apply for all **:

1.) **Fourier Transform: **Gives an equation to solve for the time-domain function from .

2.) **Inverse Fourier Transform: **Gives an equation to solve for the frequency-domain function from .

3.) **Symmetry Property:** For a given pair of a time-domain signal and its Fourier transform, we note that the time-domain envelope is different in shape when compared to the frequency-domain envelope. However, switching the shape of the two functions with respect to domain (time or frequency), will result in the same envelopes except with different scaling coefficients. For example, a square pulse through time has a frequency spectrum described by a sinc function, and a sinc function through time results in a frequency spectrum described by a square pulse.

4.) **Scaling Property:** Time-scaling a time-domain signal (by a constant ) will result in a magnitude-and-frequency-scaling of the signal’s corresponding frequency spectrum. Also signifies that the longer a signal exists through time, the narrower the bandwidth (collection of frequency components needed to rebuild the signal) of its frequency spectrum.

5.) **Time-Shifting Property: **By time-shifting, or delaying/advancing, a time-domain signal results in a *phase delay* in each of the ever-lasting frequency-components needed to rebuild it. The frequency spectrum is otherwise unchanged – only the phase of each component is shifted.

6.) **Frequency-Shifting Property: **Multiplying a time-domain signal by a sinusoidal signal of some frequency , a method which begets amplitude and frequency modulation (AM/FM), results in the frequency spectrum remains unchanged **except for a shift in frequency for each individual frequency component by ****.**

Lastly, these tables (table 1, table 2) can greatly simplify Fourier analysis when used in signal processing.